اثر تلفیق اسیدهیومیک و کود نانوکلات پتاسیم بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد پروتئین لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی (Vigna unguiculata L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 گروه خاکشناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

10.22067/ijpr.v13i2.2202-1022

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تلفیق اسیدهیومیک و کود نانوکلات پتاسیم بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد پروتئین لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال­ زراعی 1398 در مزرعه‌ای واقع در شهرستان اهواز اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل اسید هیومیک در سه سطح صفر (شاهد)، 2 و 4 لیتر در هکتار و سطوح کود نانوکلات پتاسیم به‌صورت خاک کاربرد در سه سطح صفر (شاهد)، 2 و 4 کیلوگرم در هکتار بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار اسیدهیومیک و نانوکلات پتاسیم بر تعداد دانه در غلاف، شاخص برداشت، شاخص کلروفیل و درصد پروتئین دانه معنی­دار بود. برهمکنش اسیدهیومیک و نانوکلات پتاسیم اثر معنی­داری بر وزن100دانه، تعداد غلاف در بوته، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از کاربرد 4 کیلوگرم در هکتار نانوکلات پتاسیم و 4 لیتر در هکتار اسیدهیومیک به میزان 29/226 گرم در مترمربع حاصل شد که با تیمار 4 کیلوگرم در هکتار نانوکلات پتاسیم و 2لیتر در هکتار اسیدهیومیک تفاوت آماری معنی­داری نداشت که نسبت به تیمار عدم کاربرد اسیدهیومیک و نانوکلات پتاسیم 25 درصد افزایش نشان داد. به‌طور کلی می­توان کاربرد 2 لیتر در هکتار اسیدهیومیک توأم با 4کیلوگرم در هکتار نانوکلات پتاسیم را برای افزایش عملکرد دانه در واحد سطح و درصد پروتئین لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی مناسب دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of combination of the humic acid and nano-Potassium fertilizer on yield, yield components and protein percentage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad hossein Hosseini nik 1
  • alireza shokuhfar 2
  • khoshnaz payandeh 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Soil Sciences, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) as one of the important beans, has 20-25% protein and is a protein supplier that is needed by humans and plays an important role in this regard. Increasing yield per unit area is one of the most important factors for increasing production. Humic acid is a natural organic polymer compound that results from the decay of soil organic matter, peat, lignin, etc., which can be used to increase the product and its quality. One of the important benefits of using humic acid is the ability to chelate various nutrients such as potassium and magnesium and other elements to overcome the lack of nutrients. Humic acid also creates more space for water to penetrate through physical modification and improved soil granulation. Nanotechnology as a leading science in solving problems and issues of agriculture has well proven its place in agricultural sciences and related industries. Potassium is the most suitable cation with a capacity to activate plant enzymes because in addition to its high concentration in the cell and its amount in nature, this cation has an extraordinary mobility inside the plant. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of combining humic acid and potassium nano-chelate fertilizer on the characteristics of cowpea in Ahvaz.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of compilation of the humic acid and nano-potassium fertilizer on physiological, morphological and yield characteristics of cowpea (Vigna sp.) in Ahvaz, a factorial study was conducted in Ahvaz city in the year 2020 based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. Experimental factors included humic acid at three levels: zero (control), 2 and 4 liters per hectare and levels of potassium nano-chelate fertilizer as soil application at 3 levels including: zero (control), 2 and 4 kg ha-1 in Ahvaz region. Field preparation included plowing, disks and leveling. After preparation of the field, nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers were mixed with the disk machine at a depth of 15 cm. Nitrogen from the source of urea (46%) was 50 kg nitrogen per hectare and phosphorus fertilizer from the source of triple superphosphate at a rate of 80 kg/ha P (48%) was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.2 and comparing of the means was based on LSD method at 5% probability level.
 
Results and Discussion
The experimental results showed that the effect of different levels of potassium and humic acid nanoclate on grain yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight, biological yield and protein percentage were effective and affected these traits. The highest grain yield of 4 kg/ha potassium nanoclate and 4 liters/ha of humic acid at the rate of 226.29 g/m2 (which was not statistically significant with the treatment of 4 kg/ha potassium nanoclate and 2 liters/ha of humic acid) It was found that compared to the non-application of humic acid and potassium nanochlate, it showed a 25% increase. In general, application of 2 liters per hectare of humic acid and 4 kg per hectare of potassium nanoclate can be recommended to increase the yield and percentage of protein in cowpea plant. Due to the persistence of photosynthetic tissues, humic acid increased plant yield and also increased plant yield through positive physiological effects such as the effect on plant cell metabolism and increasing leaf chlorophyll concentration. Potassium nano-chelate leads to improved plant growth conditions and cell division and the production of hydrocarbons and proteins and its rapid transfer to the grain, which increases grain weight and thus increases grain yield.
 
Conclusion
According to the results of this study, it was found that the application of two factors, humic acid and potassium, in plants do not have an inhibitory effect on each other, grain yield and protein percentage. Therefore, these two factors together increase the functional components. Therefore, due to the lack of potassium in the arable soils of Khuzestan, it seems that the use of nano-chelate potassium and humic acid at the rate of 4 kg per hectare and 2 liters per hectare, respectively, is a suitable solution to increase the yield and protein content of cowpea with suggested paying attention to the reduction of environmental pollution caused by the application of fertilizers in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 100-seed weight
  • Biological yield
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Number of pods per plant
  1. Abbas, G., Aslam, M., Malik, A.U., Abbas, Z., Ali, M., and Hussain, F. 2011. Potassium sulphate effects on growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata ) under arid climate. International Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences 3(2): 72-75.
  2. Adhikari, B., Kumar Dhungana, S., Kim, I., and Shin, D.H. 2020. Effect of foliar application of potassium fertilizers on soybean plants under salinity stress. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 19: 261-269.
  3. Antoun, L., Sahar, W., Zakaria, M., and Rafla, H. 2010. Influence of compost Nmineral and humic acid on yild and chemical composition of wheat plant. Jornal Soil Science and Agriculture l(11): 1131-1143.
  4. Ayas, H., and Gulser, F. 2005. The effect of sulfur and humic acid on yield components and macronutrient contents of spinach. Journal of Biological Sciences 5(6): 801-804.
  5. Baratzadeh, S., Saki Nejad, T., and Babainejad, T. Effect of potassium nano chlorate and ascorbic acid on yield and some qualitative characteristics of kidney bean seed of Kamran cultivar.Journal of Plant Production Science9(2): 149-160.
  6. Cavani, L., Ciavatta, C., and Gessa, C. 2003. Identification of organic matter from peat, leonardite and lignite fertilizers using humification parameters and electrofocusing. Bioresour Technology 86: 45-52
  7. Delfine, S., Tognetti, R., Desiderio, E., and Alvino, A. 2005. Effect of foliar application of N and humic acids on growth and yield of durum wheat. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25: 183-191.
  8. Dincsoy, M., and Sonmez, F. 2019. The effect of potassium and humic acid applications on yield and nutrient contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Delfii) with same soil properties. Journal of Plant Nutrition 42(20): 2757-2772.
  9. El-Bassiony, A.M., Fawzy, Z.F., Abd El-Baky, M. M.H., and Mahmoud Asmaa, 2010. Response of snap bean plants to mineral fertilizers and humic acid application. Research Agricultural and Biological Science, INSInet Publication 6(2): 169-175.
  10. Faiyad, R., Bador, A.G., and El-Mahdy, R.E. 2019. Maximizing utilization of some organic fertilizers to produce the highest yield of Cowpea. Egypt Journal Soil Scienca 59(1): 53-66.
  11. Gardner, F.P., Piers, R., and Michelle, L. 2011. Physiology of Crop P Translation: Koocheki A, and Sarmadnia Gh. 16th ed. Mashhad SID Press. 400 p.
  12. Giasuddin, A.B.M., Kanel, S., and Choi, H. 2007. Adsorption of humic acid onto nanoscale zerovalent iron and its effect on arsenic removal. Journal of Environment Science Technology 41(6): 2022-2027.
  13. Ghorbani, S., Khazaei, H.R., Kafi, M., and Banayan Aval, M. 2010. Effect of humicacid application in irrigation water on yield and yield components of corn.Agricultural Ecology Journal 2(1):123-131. (in Persian).
  14. Gomaa, M.A., Radwan, F.I., Kandil, E.E., and Al- Challabi, D.H.H. 2017. Comparison of some new maize hybrids response to mineral fertilization and some n Alexandria Science Exchange Journal 38(3): 506-516.
  15. Jones, J., Wolf, B., and Mills, H.A. 1991. Plant Analysis Handbook, Micro-macro. Publishing, 3rd E 571 p.
  16. Kahraman, A. 2017. Effect of humic acid doses on yield and quality parameters of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] cultivars. Legume Research-An International Journal 40(1): 155-159.
  17. Khan, A., Guramni, A.R., Khan, M.Z., Hussain, F., Akhtar, M.E., and Khan, S. 2012. Effect of humic acid on growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (Pisum sativum L). Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan 6: 56-63.
  18. Khan, R.U., Khan, M.Z., Khan, A., Saba, S., Hussain, F., andJan, I.U. 2018. Effect of humic acid on growth and crop nutrient status of wheat on two different soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41(4): 453-460.
  19. Koocheki, A., and Sarmadnia, Gh.H. 2008. Plant Physiology (translation). Mashhad Academic Publications. 467 p.
  20. Kuntyastuti, H., Purwaningrahayu, R.D., and Lestari, S.A.D. 2019. Soybean growth and yield responses at third planting season to residual potassium fertilizer on a vertisol. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 6(2): 1645-1651.
  21. Ludwig-Muller, J. 2000. Indole-3-butyric acid in plant growth and development. Plant Growth Regulation 2(3): 219-230.
  22. Mahmoodi Zoeek, R., Nasri, M., and Oveysi, M. 2015. Effects of humic acid sprying on yield and nutrients transition to Wheat grain in drought stress condition. Agronomic Research in Semi Desert Regions 12(2): 119-131.
  23. Mansourian, S., and Shokoohfar, A. 2015. Effect of potassium fertilizer and irrigation intervals levels on yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Ahvaz condition. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 5(1): 26-32.
  24. Mansourian, S., and Shokoohfar, A. 2015. Effect of potassium fertilizer and irrigation intervals levels on yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Ahvaz condition. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 5(1): 26-32.
  25. Marchner, H. 1993. Mineral Nutrition of H 3nd Ed. Academic Press, Newyork., USA. pp 350- 355.
  26. Mindari, W., Edi Sasongko, P., Kusuma, Z., and Aini, N. 2019. Efficiency of various sources and doses of humic acid on physical and chemical properties of saline soil and growth and yield of Rice. The 9th International Conference on Global Resource Conservation (ICGRC) and AJI from Ritsumeikan University AIP Conference Proceedings. 2019, 030001.
  27. Motaghi, S., and Sakinejad, T. 2014. The effect of different levels of humic acid and potassium fertilizer on physiological indices of growth. International Journal of Biosciences 5: 99-105.
  28. Rahimi, M., and Salahizadeh, A. 2015. Effect of different levels of irrigation and potassium on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the beans in Yasooj, Iran. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 4(1): 50-56.
  29. Sadaf, A., and Tahir, M. 2017. Effect of potassium on growth, yield and quality of mungbean under different irrigation regimes. Bulletin of Biological and Allied Sciences Research 2(4): 1-10.
  30. Salardini, A. 2005. Soil Fertility. 7th E Tehran University Press. 434 p. (in Persian).
  31. Samadi Firouzabadi, B., and Farahani, E. 2013. Effect of planting date on seed yield and its components of mung bean (Vigna radiata ) genotypes in varamin region in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal 29(3): 387-401. (in Persian with English abstract).
  32. Saruhan, V., Kusvuran, A., and Babat, S. 2011. The effect of different humicacid fertilization on yield and yield components performances of common millet (Panicum miliaceum ). Agronomy Journal 4: 130-133.
  33. Shahsavani, Sh., Gharanjik, Sh., and Jadidoleslam, N. 2017. Effect of mycorrhiza, Pseudomonas bacteria and humic acid on growth indices of bean.Iranian Journal of Pulses Research8(1): 97-112.
  34. Sharifi, P., Karbalavi, N., and Aminpanah, H. 2013. Effects of drought stress and potassium sulfate fertilizer on green bean yield. Electronic Jornal of Crop Production 4: 137-149. (in Persian).
  35. Soufifard, Sh., and Sadeghi, S.M. 2019. Effect of potassium sulfate fertilizer levels and row spacing on yield and yield components of bean in tea uprooted garden. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology 12(40): 250-262. (in Persian).
  36. Teimoori, N., Heidari, Gh.R., Hosseinpanahi, F., Siosehmarde, A., and Sohrabi, Y.Response of physiological characteristics of Sardary wheat ecotypes to foliar application of humic acid before and after flowering in dryland conditions. Plant Production Technology19(1): 173-190.
  37. Tourf, , and Shokuhfar, A.R. 2019. Effect of humic acid on yield, yield components and physiological parameters of wheat in deficit irrigation conditions. Journal of Plant Production Science 9(2): 121-132. (in Persian).
  38. Tripura, P., Verma, R., Kumar, S., and Balwan, B. 2017. Effect of potassium humate and bio-inoculants on growth and yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Environment and Ecology 35(2): 1494-1498.
  39. Yves Theoneste, M., Wah Oo, L., Gloria Chiwasa, T., and Chul Lee, S. 2018. Response of different potassium application rates on growth, yield, carbohydrates and protein content of Mungbean (Vignaradiata). International Journal of Science and Research 8(8): 697-702.
CAPTCHA Image