عنوان مقاله [English]
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important plants in the legume family, which is very important in the diet. Chickpea leaf-miner, (Liriomyza congesta, Becker) is one of the most important chickpea pests. Chickpea leaf-miner fly indirectly reduces the yield of chickpea by feeding on chickpea leaves. The amount of damage of chickpea leaf miner is not completely known due to its indirectness. Chickpea leaf miner fly has 3-4 generations per year and spends the winter as a pupa at a depth of 5-6 cm in the soil. The management of the leaf miner flies of the Agromyzidae family has been the subject of extensive scientific research for many years. Many chemical and botanical insecticides have been studied to control of leaf miner flies and are now widely used by farmers around the world. Today, the indiscriminate use of pesticides has created many problems and their effectiveness has been severely reduced due to improper use, adverse effects on natural enemies, and the development of resistance among populations of leaf miner flies. Management control is one of the most effective and simple methods used in integrated pest management. In this control method, by changing the planting date, planting density and using resistant cultivars, the compatibility of pest biology with plant phenology is disturbed and the establishment of the pest on the host plant is prevented. Changing the planting date causes no synchronization between the critical growth stage of the plant and the damaging stage of the pest and it delays the establishment of the pest on the plant, also reduces the reproduction and survival of the pest and the damage of the pest on the sensitive growth stage of the plant. Considering that the cultivation of chickpeas in the drylands of the south of West Azerbaijan province after wheat is of great importance, attention to its important pests, especially leaf miner fly and non-chemical methods to control this pest by changing the cultivars and planting times was one of the necessities of this research.
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effect of cultivar and planting date on control of chickpea leaf-miner, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Oshnavia, west Azarbaijan province at the field conditions during 2018-2019. The first factor was chickpea cultivars including Bionij, Grit, Jam, ILC482 and Pirouz, and the second factor was three planting times on March 19, April 4 and April 20. Traits of plant infestation, number of larvae per plant, leaves infestation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, biological yield and grain yield were evaluated. The data analysis of variance was performed using SAS 9.2 software. Means were also compared by LSD (Last Significant Difference) test at 5% probability level and the figures were drawn with Excel 2013.
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variances showed that there were significant differences between different cultivars (p<0.05) and different planting times (p<0.01) for all studied traits. Interaction of cultivar and planting time were significant on all studied traits other than the number of infested plants and percent of infested plants (p<0.05). The highest number of infested plants (17.77±1.84%), number of larvae per plants (4.66±0.38 larvae), percentage of infested leaves (11±0.58%) and the lowest number of seeds per plant (20±0.58 seeds) and 100 seed weight (16.66±0.88 g) were found in Jam cultivar. The highest number of pods per plant (19.66±2.19 pods), number of seeds per plant (26±1.53 seeds), 100 seed weight (33±1.30 g), biological yield (2547.3±158.57 kg.ha-1) and grain yield (1397.4±46.76 kg.ha-1) and the lowest percentage of infested plants (7.4±0.61%) was observed in ILC428 cultivar.
In the present study, March 19 was the best planting time and ILC482 was the most resistant and high yielding cultivar. Therefore, setting the planting time and using resistant cultivars can effectively control leaf-miner chickpea. According to the results of the present study, although the highest percentage of infested leaves was observed on March 19, however, the plant had the highest yield and yield components due to the increase in the length of the growth period and the compensatory mechanism of the plant and pest tolerance.