اثر اسید ‌سالیسیلیک و کودهای ‌زیستی بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد ارقام نخود دیم (Cicer arietinum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی

3 دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

بهبود وضعیت فیزیولوژیک گیاه در شرایط دیم می‌تواند باعث افزایش توان گیاه و بالابردن تولید در گیاه گردد. در همین راستا آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌ زراعی 96-1395 در کرمانشاه در شرایط دیم اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو رقم بیونیج (رقم محلی) و آزاد (رقم اصلاح‌شده)، سه سطح محلول‏پاشی اسید­سالیسیلیک (عدم کاربرد، مصرف نیم و یک میلی‏مولار) که حدود دو هفته قبل ازگل‌دهی آغاز و به مدت۲۰ روز ادامه یافت و کودهای­زیستی در پنج سطح (شاهد، باکتری بیوسوپرفسفات (Pseudomonas+Enterobacter)، باکتری بیوسولفور (.Thiobacillus spp)، باکتری ریزوبیوم (Mesorhizobium ciceri) و قارچ میکوریز (Rhizophagus irregularis) همزمان با کاشت اعمال گردید. صفات مورد بررسی شامل ﻣﺤﺘﻮایﻧﺴﺒﯽ آب ﺑﺮگ، آب نسبی ازدست‌رفته‏ برگ‌ها (RWL[1])، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل، نسبت کلروفیلa/b، کاروتنوئید، پراکسید هیدروژن، فعالیت آنزیم‌های کاتالاز و پراکیسداز و عملکرد دانه بود. محلول‏پاشی اسیدسالیسیلیک و کاربرد کودهای­زیستی تولید پراکسید هیدروژن را افزایش و فعالیت آنزیم‏های کاتالاز و پراکسیداز را کاهش داد. بالاترین فعالیت کاتالاز در رقم بیونیج×عدم محلول­پاشی اسید­سالیسیلیک، رقم بیونیج×عدم کاربرد کود­زیستی و عدم کاربرد اسید­سالیسیلیک×کود­زیستی و کمترین فعالیت کاتالاز در رقم آزاد×اسید­سالیسیلیک یک میلی­مولار، رقم بیونیج×بیوسوپرفسفات و اسید­سالیسیلیک یک میلی­مولار×بیوسولفور به‌دست آمد. بالاترین و کمترین فعالیت پراکسیداز به­ترتیب در شرایط عدم کاربرد اسید­سالیسیلیک×عدم کاربرد کود­زیستی (078/0 نانومول بر دقیقه بر گرم) و اسیدسالیسیلیک یک میلی‌مولار×کاربرد ریزوبیوم (049/0 نانومول بر دقیقه بر گرم) حاصل شد. محتوای کلروفیلa، کلروفیلa/b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید با کاربرد کودهای­زیستی به­ترتیب تا 83/1، 269/1، 347/3 و 66/9 میلی‏گرم بر میلی‏لیتر افزایش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه به میزان 1626 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تیمار کاربرد ریزوبیوم و در سطح نیم‌میلی­مولار اسید­سالیسیلیک به‌دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش محلول­پاشی نیم ‏میلی‏مولار اسید­سالیسیلیک همراه با کاربرد کودهای­زیستی دارای باکتری ریزوبیومی و قارچ میکوریز علاوه بر بهبود ویژگی فیزیولوژیکی، منجر به افزایش 34 درصدی عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با شاهد گردید که به لحاظ اقتصادی بسیار قابل توجه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of salicylic acid spraying and application of biofertilizers on the physiological characteristics and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars under rainfed conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fardin Momeni 1
  • Alireza Abdali Mashhadi 2
  • Seyeed Ataolah Siadat 1
  • Babak Pakdaman Sardrood 1
  • Mokhtar Ghobadi 3
1 Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani
2 Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani
3 Razi University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Chickpea is one of the valuable pulses and rich source of protein. In most years, in west of Iran, the amount of rainfall is low and the distribution of rainfall is not suitable. In many cases, rainfed lands are affected by drought stress. On the other hand, most rainfed lands have low fertility, especially in nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. In higher plants, salicylic acid applied to reduce the dangerous effects of drought stress. Different varieties of chickpeas show different responses to environmental changes. This experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effect of salicylic acid and biofertilizers on the physiological characteristics of two chickpea cultivars.
 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was done in factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Kermanshah under rainfed conditions in the 2016. Kermanshah is located at an altitude of 1319 m of sea level (Latitude: 34°21′ N and Longitude: 47°9′ E). Experimental treatments included two chickpea cultivars (Bivanij and Azad), foliar spraying of salicylic acid (non-application, 0.5 and 1 mill molar concentrations) and biological fertilizer (non-application of biofertilizers, bio-superphosphate bacteria (Pseudomonas+Enterobacter), biosulfur bacteria (Thiobacillus spp.), a rhizobium bacterium (Mesorhizobium ciceri), and mycorrhiza fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis). Each plot was six m2 (four meters long and 1.5 meters wide) with 6 lines (density= 40 plants per m2, sowing line spacing= 25 cm, sowing distance on each line= 10 cm and sowing depth= 7 cm). The sowing date was March 19. The studied traits were relative water content, relative water loss, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b ratio, carotenoids, hydrogen peroxide, catalase and peroxidase enzyme activity and grain yield.
 
Results and Discussion
Foliar spraying of salicylic acid and the application of biofertilizers increased the production of hydrogen peroxide and decreased the activity of catalase and peroxidase enzymes. The highest catalase activity were obtained in Bivanij cultivar×non-application of salicylic acid, Bivanij cultivar×non-use of biofertilizer, non-application of salicylic acid and the lowest catalase activity were obtained in Azad cultivar×one mM salicylic acid, Bivanij cultivar×bio-superphosphate and one mM salicylic acid×biosulfur application. The highest and lowest peroxidase activity were obtained under non-application of salicylic acid×non-application of biofertilizer and one mM salicylic acid×rhizobium application, respectively. The highest relative water loss (RWL) was obtained in Bivanij cultivar×non-application of biofertilizer, while the lowest RWL was observed in Azad cultivar×biosulfur application biofertilizer. Relatively, the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a/b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids increased with the application of biofertilizers. Bivanij cultivar had a higher grain yield than Azad cultivar. In both Bivanij and Azad varieties, the highest grain yield was obtained from the use of rhizobium and mycorrhiza biofertilizers. The highest grain yield (1626 kg.ha-1) was observed from the application of the concentration of 0.5 mM of salicylic acid and rhizobium biofertilizer. In both Bivanij and Azad varieties, the highest catalase activity was observed due to non-use of salicylic acid and non-application of biofertilizer.
 
Conclusion
In general, at all three levels of salicylic acid, the highest peroxidase activity was observed in the absence of biofertilizer application. It is possible that biofertilizers reduce both nutrient deficiencies and drought stress, thus reducing peroxidase activity. In general, in this experiment, in terms of grain yield and physiological traits affecting grain yield, between the cultivars, native Bivanij cultivar, among the salicylic acid levels, the concentration of 0.5 mmol and among the biofertilizers, rhizobium biofertilizer were superior treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Carotenoids
  • Catalase
  • Chlorophyll
  • Hydrogen peroxide
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