تأثیر همزیستی میکوریزای آرباسکولار و شبه‌میکوریزای داخلی بر عملکرد دانه و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک ژنوتیپ‌های نخود (Cicer arietinum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تلقیح بذور ژنوتیپ­های نخود با میکوریزای آرباسکولار و شبه‌میکوریزای داخلی بر روی عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک نخود، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپیلت­پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل­تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده­ کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-1392 به اجرا در آمد. فاکتور اصلی در سه سطح شامل میکوریزای آرباسکولار گونة Glomus mosseae و شبه­میکوریزای داخلی گونة
Piriformospora indica و عدم مصرف کود و فاکتور فرعی شامل 9 ژنوتیپ نخود بود. نتایج نشان داد که
G. mosseae از اواسط فصل رشد به‌طور معنی­داری باعث افزایش سطح برگ و ماده خشک گیاه نخود گردید. ژنوتیپ MCC537 از اوایل فصل رشد از نظر سطح برگ و ماده خشک، برتری مشهودی نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ­ها داشت. میکوریزای ­آرباسکولار سبب افزایش معنی­دار کلروفیل­های a و b، کاروتنوئیدها و سبزینگی برگ گردید، اما سطوح میکوریزا تأثیر معنی­داری بر روی میزان کلروفیل کل نداشتند. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل­ a در ژنوتیپ­های MCC537، MCC427، MCC693 و MCC392، بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل­ کل در ژنوتیپ­های MCC537، MCC427، MCC392، MCC693 و MCC80 به ترتیب به میزان 620/0، 612/0، 574/0، 564/0 و 562/0 میلی­گرم بر گرم وزن تر برگ، بیشترین مقدار کاروتنوئید در ژنوتیپ­های MCC537، MCC427 و MCC392 و بالاترین شاخص سبزینگی به ترتیب به میزان 8/33، 7/31 و 9/29 در ژنوتیپ­های MCC537، MCC427 و MCC392 مشاهده شد. بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه در ژنوتیپ­ MCC537 و شرایط کاربرد G. mosseae مشاهده شد که در مقایسه با شرایط عدم مصرف قارچ 31 درصد بیشتر بود. در مجموع به نظر می­رسد که میکوریزای ­آرباسکولار می­تواند سبب بهبود خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک نخود شده و در بین ژنوتیپ­های مورد بررسی، MCC537، MCC427 و MCC392 از نظر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک مورد مطالعه برتری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and pseudo-endo mycorrihza symbiosis on seed yield and some physiological responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Arshadi
  • Mahdi Parsa
  • Amir Lakzian
  • Mohammad Kafi
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction
It has been proven that microorganisms such as mycorrhiza and rhizobium can improve the nutrients absorption in crops such as chickpea. Rhizobiums are effective to provide nitrogen by biological form in crops and mycorrhizal fungi are involved to supply biological phosphorus to the plants. Among them, the endo myccorihza (or Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) that abbreviated VAM, in creation of symbiosis with the roots of crops such as legumes have been more successful. Of course, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacteria before create symbiosis with host plant, directly affect in the overlay in rhizosphere environment of host plant. Creating colonies in the roots by mycorrhizal fungi leads to conducive for forming nodulation of rhizobium. Studies have shown that the VAMs (which are newly named AMF (Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi)) are generally belongs to Zigomaycota groups and ecto-myccorihza are mainly to Basidiomaycota. But recently a new species of Basidiomaycota has been identified with name of Piriformospora indica that acts as AMF and is an entophyte fungus (or pseudo endo mycorrihza). It seems that this symbiotic relationship between plants, mycorrhizal and rhizobium can be either normal or adverse environmental conditions, is effective in promoting the product of crop. In Iran, among pluses, chickpea has been allocated the most area under cultivation. Meanwhile, the average yield of irrigated and dryland chickpea is about 1000 and 500 kg ha-1, respectively and Iran is located the lowest ranking among the countries producing this product. Thus, the triplet symbiosis of chickpea, mycorrhiza and rhizobium and also chickpea genotypes response to this symbiosis were examined in this research.
 
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted to investigate the inoculation of Kabuli seeds of chickpea genotypes with arbuscular mycorrhiza and pseudo endo mycorhiza, in split plot by arrangement of two factors with a randomized complete block design and three replications in Research Field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2014. Main plots were consisted of three levels of mycorhiza (arbuscular mycorhiza of Glomus mosseae, pseudo endo mycorhiza of Piriformospora indica and non-used mycorhiza) and sub plots were consisted of nine genotypes of chickpea: MCC80, MCC358, MCC361, MCC392, MCC427, MCC537, MCC693, MCC696 and MCC950. These genotypes had good yield potentials and selection and presented in the studies on germplasm from the Institute of Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad seed bank. Before the sowing, all seeds of genotypes were infected to the symbiotic rhizobium bacteria of chickpea. During the growing season, traits of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, SPAD readings and protein of plant tissues were measured and by measuring dry matter and leaf area, their process was investigated under different treatments. Also, at the end of the growing season, seed yield of genotypes was measured.
 
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that G. mosseae significantly increased seed yield and dry matter of chickpea since mid-season upward compared to other treatments. Arbuscular mycorrhiza significantly increased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, carotenoids and SPAD readings. Also the most protein of plant tissues belonged to the factor of arbuscular mycorrhiza in two genotypes of MCC537 and MCC427. The combined application of rhizobium and mycorrhiza increased leaf area index. Evaluation of leaf area index process at the end of the growing season showed an increase in the lower range of leaf area index curve in rhizobium and mycorrhiza treatments, which was not significant in the fifth sampling and was significant in the sixth sampling. Among study genotypes, MCC537 showed the highest seed yield and higher dry matter than other genotypes during the growing season at harvest time. The most content of carotenoids and SPAD readings were in genotypes of MCC537, MCC427 and MCC392.
 
Conclusion
It seems that application of pseudo endo mycorrhiza had not significant effect on the absorption of seed yield in chickpea. But application of G. mosseae along with rhizobium can improve the physiological traits and seed yield of chickpea. Also, in a general conclusion, among the studied genotypes, MCC 537 and MCC 427 were better than the others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • SPAD reading
  1. Abbasi, Z. 2020. Evaluation of sugar beet monogerm O-type lines for salinity tolerance at vegetative stage. African Journal of Biotechnology 19(9): 602-612.
  2. Abrishamchi, P., Ganjeali, A., and Sakeni, H. 2012. Evaluation of morphological triats, proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity in chickpea genotype (Cicer arietinum) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 3(2): 17-30. (In Persian with English Summary).
  3. Alimadadi, A., Jansuz, M.R., Besharati, H., and Tavakol Afshari, R. 2010. Evaluate the effect of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, mycorrhiza and seed priming on nodulation in Journal of Soil Research 24(1): 43-51. (In Persian with English Summary).
  4. Arshadi, M.J. 2008. Effect of nitrogen topdress fertilizer application by using chlorophyll meter on yield and quality of potato (Agria cv.). M.Sc. Thesis of Faculty of Agriculture. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English Summary).
  5. Arshadi, M.J., Parsa, M., Lakzian, A., and Kafi, M. 2017. Evaluation of the effect of chickpea seeds inoculation with rhizobium, arbuscular mycorhiza and like-endo mycorhiza on yield and yield components of chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum ). Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 8(2): 109-125. (In Persian with English Summary).
  6. Asadi Rahmani, H., Asgharzadeh, A., khavazi, K., Rejali, F., and Savaghebi, G.R. 2007. Siol Biological Fertility. Publication of Jahad Daneshgahi. 311 pp. (In Persian).
  7. Baltruschant, H., Fodor, J., Harrach, B.D., Niemczyk, E., Barna, B., Gullner, G., Janeczko, A., Kogel, K., Schafer, P., and Schwarczinger, I. 2008. Salt tolerance of barley induced by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica is associated with a strong increase in antioxidants. New Phytologist 180: 501-
  8. Darzi, M.T., Ghalavand, A., and Rejali, F. 2009. Effect of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phosphate biofertilizer application on flowering, biological yield and root colonization in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 10(1): 88-109. (In Persian with Enlish Summary).
  9. Diouf, D., Diop, T.A., and Ndoye, I. 2003. Actinorhizal, mycorhizal and rhizobial symbioses: how much do we know? African Journal of Biotechnology 2(1): 1-
  10. Farshadfar, A., and Javadi Niya, J. 2011. Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes for drought tolerance. Breeding Seed and Plant Journal 1-27(4): 517-537. (In Persian with English Summary).
  11. Ford Denison, , and Toby Kiers, E. 2011. Life histories of symbiotic rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi, a Review. Current Biology 21(18): 775-785.
  12. Ganjeali, A., and Bagheri, A.R. 2010. Evaluation of root morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in response to drought stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 1(2): 101-110. (In Persian with English Summary).
  13. Ganjeali, A., Joveynipour, S., Porsa, H., and Bagheri, A.R. 2011a. Sellection for drought tolerance in Kabuli chickpea genotype (Cicer arietinum) in Neyshabour region. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 2(1): 27-38. (In Persian with English Summary).
  14. Ganjeali, A., Porsa, H., and Bagheri, A.R. 2011b. Response of yield and morphophysiological characteristics of earliness chickpea genotype (Cicer arietinum) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 2(1): 65-80. (In Persian with English Summary).
  15. Ghalavand, A., Mohammadi, Kh., Aghaalikhani, M., Sohrabi, Y., and Heydari, Gh. 2012. Effects of different organic and biological fertilizers on yield and yield components of chickpea (Cicer aritenium ). Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi) 94: 41-49. (In Persian with English Summary).
  16. Golubkina, N., Gomez, L.D., Kekina, H., Cozzolino, E., Simister, R., Tallarita, A., Torino, V., Koshevarov, A., Cuciniello, A., Maiello, R., Cenvinzo, V., and Caruso, G. 2020. Joint selenium-iodine supply and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation affect yield and quality of chickpea seeds and residual biomass. Plant Journal 9(804): 1-18.
  17. Harrach, B.D. Abiotic and biotic stress effects on barley and tobacco plants. Plant Protection Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest.
  18. , ICRISAT and ICARDA. 1993. Description for Ckickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Printed by ICRISAT.
  19. Izadi Darbandi, A., and Akram, L. 2012. Investigate the effect of Pyridate, bentazon and Imazethapyr herbicide on growth, nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 3(1): 94-105. (In Persian with English Summary).
  20. Kafi, M., Bagheri, A., Nabati, J., Zare Mehrjerdi, M., and Masoumi, A. 2010. Investigation of the effect of salinity stress on some physiological variables of 11 chickpea genotypes in hydroponic environment. Journal of Greenhouse Culture Science and Technology 1(4): 70-55. (In Persian with English Summary).
  21. Kamaei, R. 2014. Effects of plant species and biological, chemical fertilizers and manure on mycorrhiza infectivness under greenhouse conditions. M.Sc. Thesis of Faculty of Agriculture. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English Summary).
  22. Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K.G. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bio-Resource Technology 93: 307-311.
  23. Kari Dolatabadi, H., and Mohamadi Galtapeh, E. 2010. In vivo biological activity of Piriformospora indica, Sebacina vermifera and Trichoderma against Fusarium wilt of lentil. Plant Protection Journal 2(2): 127-143. (In Persian with English Summary).
  24. Khaje Poor, M.R. 2004. Principles of Agronomy. Jihad Daneshgahi Publications of Esfahan. (In Persian).
  25. Koocheki, A., and Sarmad Nia, Gh. 2008. Crop Physiology. Publications of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian).
  26. Koocheki, A., Zand, A., Banayan, M., Rezvani Moghadam, P., Mahdavi Damghani, A., Jami Alahmadi, M., and Vesal, S. 2005. Plant Eco-P Vol. 2. Publications of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian).
  27. Kumar, V., Sahai, V., and Bisaria, V.S. 2011. High-density spore production of Piriformospora indica, a plant growth-promoting endophyte, by optimization of nutritional and cultural parameters. Bioresource Technology 102: 3169-
  28. Mansoorifar, S., Shaban, M., Ghobadi, M., and Sabaghpoor, S.H. 2012. Physiological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars under drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer as starter. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 3(1): 101-110. (In Persian with English Summary).
  29. Mehr Puyan, M., and Shirani Rad, A.H. 2011. Comparing the biological nitrogen fixation efficiency, in native and non-native strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum; bv. phaseoli in common b Journal of Pulses Research 2(2): 7-18. (In Persian with English Summary).
  30. Namvar, P. 2014. Evaluation of effects of Piriformospora indica on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in corn. MSc. thesis of Faculty of Agriculture. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian with English Summary).
  31. Naseri, R., Siyadat, A., Soleymani Fard, A., Soleymani, R., and Khosh Khabar, H. Effects of planting date and density on yield, yield components and protein content of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars under rainfed conditions in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 2(2): 7-18. (In Persian with English Summary).
  32. Parsa Motlagh, B., Mahmudi, S., Siari, M.H., and Naghi Zadeh, M. 2011. Effect of Mycorrhiza and phosphorus fertilizer on the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and nutrients concentrations of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in saline stress conditions. Journal of Agroecology 3(2): 233-244. (In Persian with English Summary).
  33. Prajapati, K., Yami, K.D., and Singh, A. 2008. Plant growth promotional effect of Azotobacter chroococcum, Piriformospora indica and vermicompost on rice p Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 9: 85-90.
  34. Rasae, B., Ghobadi, M.E., Ghobadi, M., and Najaphy, A. 2013. Reducing effects of drought stress by application of humic acid, Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium on chickpea. Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5-16: 1775-1778.
  35. Rezvami, M., Ardakani, M.R., Rejali, F., Noor Mohamadi, Gh., Zafariyan, F., and Teymuri, S. 2009. The effect of different strains of mycorrhizal fungi on root characteristics and concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc on Alfalfa (Medicagi sativa ). Journal of modern Knowledge of Agriculture 5(15): 55-67. (In Persian with English Summary).
  36. Rodelas, B., GonzaÂlez-LoÂpez, J., Pozo, C., SalmeroÂn, V., and MartõÂnez-Toledo M.V. Response of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to combined inoculation with Azotobacter and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viceae. Applied Soil Ecology 12: 51-59.
  37. Shrimant Shridhar, B. 2012. Review: nitrogen fixing m International Journal of Microbiological Research 3(1): 46-52.
  38. Singh, D.N., Massod Ali, R.I., and Basu, P.S. 2000. Genetic variation in dry matter partitioning in shoot and root influences of chickpea to drought. 3rd International Crop Science Congress 2000. Hamburg Germany.
  39. Stein, E., Molitor, A., Kogel, K.H., and Waller, F. 2008. Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis conferred by the mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica requires jasmonic acid signaling and the cytoplasmic function of NPR1. Plant Cell Physiology 49: 1747-
  40. Taiz, L., and Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant Physiology. Sinauer Associates. Inc. Publishers.
  41. Talebi, R., Ensafi, M.H., Baghebani, N., and Karami, E. Physiological responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes to drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Biology 11: 9-15.
  42. Verma, S., Varma, A., Rexer, K., Kost, G., Sarbhoy, A., Bisen, P., Butehorn, B., and Franken, P. 1998. Piriformospora indica, gen: A new root-colonizing fungus. Mycologia 95: 896-
  43. Waller, F., Achatz, B., Baltruschat, H., Fodor, J., Becker, K., Fischer, M., Heier, T., Huckelhoven, R.., Neumann, C., Wettstein, D., Franken, P., and Kogel, K.H. 2005. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance, and higher yield. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 102: 13386-13391.
  44. Wellburn, A.R. 1994. The spectral determination of chlorophyll a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. Journal of Plant Physiology 144: 307-
  45. Zaidi, A., Khan, M.S., and Amil, M. 2003. Interactive effects of rhizotrophic microorganisms on yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ). European Journal of Agronomy 19: 15-21.