اثر دیاتومیت بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشگاه بیرجند

3 مرکز تحقیقات آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گناباد

چکیده

تنش رطوبتی از مهم‌ترین عوامل کاهش‌دهنده عملکرد نخود محسوب می‌شود. در این راستا به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد دیاتومیت به‌عنوان ترکیبی که باعث کاهش اثرات سوء تنش رطوبت می‌شود، بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 97-1396 در شهر خواف انجام شد. این پژوهش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری شامل پنج سطح (دیم، آبیاری کامل، یک نوبت آبیاری در مرحله رویشی، یک نوبت آبیاری در مرحله زایشی، دو نوبت آبیاری شامل مرحله رویشی و زایشی) و عامل فرعی مقادیر دیاتومیت در سه سطح (صفر، 3.5 و هفت تن در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تغییر رژیم آبیاری از آبیاری کامل به دیم موجب کاهش در صفات کمی مورد بررسی شد، به‌طوری‌که کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه (318.54 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (725.44 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار دیم به دست آمد. کاربرد دیاتومیت تحت رژیم‌های مختلف کم‌آبیاری تمامی صفات مورد ارزیابی و عملکرد دانه را افزایش داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در (1745.67 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار آبیاری در مرحله رویشی و زایشی و مصرف هفت تُن در هکتار دیاتومیت به دست آمد و کمترین مقدار (363.97 کیلوگرم در هکتار) آن در تیمار دیم و بدون کاربرد دیاتومیت ثبت گردید. همچنین کاربرد هفت تُن در هکتار دیاتومیت نسبت به تیمار عدم کاربرد دیاتومیت به ترتیب باعث افزایش 29، 29، 77 و 39 درصدی عملکرد دانه در رژیم‌های آبیاری شامل دیم، یک نوبت آبیاری در مرحله رویشی، یک نوبت آبیاری در مرحله زایشی، دو نوبت آبیاری شامل مرحله رویشی و زایشی شد. بر اساس نتایج اثرات متقابل در تیمار آبیاری در مرحله رویشی و زایشی و سایر تیمارهای کم‌آبیاری شامل آبیاری در مرحله رویشی، آبیاری در مرحله زایشی و دیم کاربرد 5/3 تن در هکتار دیاتومیت با کاربرد هفت تن در هکتار دیاتومیت در همه صفات موردبررسی در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفت، بنابراین می‌توان گفت کاربرد 5/3 تن در هکتار دیاتومیت مناسب‌ترین مقدار در افزایش عملکرد نخود تحت رژیم‌های کم‌آبیاری است. به‌طورکلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که کاربرد دیاتومیت در شرایط کمبود آب از طریق کاهش اثرات سوء ناشی از کمبود رطوبت، باعث بهبود عملکرد دانه گیاه نخود شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of using diatomite on yield and yield component of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) under different irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • gholam reza zamani 1
  • Davoud Ghotbinejad 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Sayyari Zahan 2
  • zohreh nabipour 3
1 Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University
2 University of Birjand
3 Researcher of Gonabad Agricutural and Natural Resource and Education Station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Moisture stress is one of the most important limiting factors which can affect crop production in semi-arid regions. Proper management and application of advanced techniques to maintain soil moisture and improve soil moisture holding capacity in the soil are effective in increasing water use efficiency and improving water resource utilization. Due to the importance of chickpea as a source of protein and the irreparable damage of moisture stress to yield of chickpea, the selection of methods that can increase the tolerance of the plant to moisture stress is very important. Recently, the use of superabsorbent has increased due to the ability to absorb and maintain water and consequently increase water use efficiency in the soil. Diatomite, as a superabsorbent, is a unique natural material with interesting features including very fine structure, low mass density, high porosity, high specific surface, chemical neutrality and high silica content. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proper amount of diatomite to obtain maximum chickpea yield under moisture stress conditions.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of diatomite on yield and yield component of chickpea under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted in Khaf in the year 1396-1397. This research was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor of irrigation regimes was five levels (dry farming, full irrigation, one irrigation in vegetative stage, one irrigation in reproductive stage, two irrigations: one vegetative stage and one reproductive stage) and factor the subdivisions of diatomite were in three levels (0, 3.5 t/ha and 7 t/ha). Each plot has 6 cultivating lines 30 cm long and 3 meters long. In this experiment, diatomite was placed at a depth of 20 cm (maximum root zone density) under seed. The cultivation was carried out manually on the fifth of March with a density of 45 plants per square meter and a depth of 5 cm. In flowering after full yellowing of chickpea pods, number of pods, number of seed in pod, 100 seed weight, percentage of pod unfilled, seed yield and biological yield were measured. Harvest was calculated by dividing the seed yield into biological yield and multiplying it by 100.
 
Results and Discussion
 The results showed that changing the irrigation regime from full irrigation to dry farming caused a decrease in the quantitative traits studied. The lowest seed yield (318.54 kg/ha) and biological yield (725.44 kg/ha) were obtained in dry farming treatment. Application of diatomite under different irrigation regimes increased all evaluated traits and seed yield. The highest seed yield (1745.67 kg/ha) was obtained in irrigation treatment in vegetative and reproductive stages and consumption of 7 ton/ha of diatomite and the lowest amount (363.97 kg/ha) was recorded in dry farming without diatomite application. Also, application of 7 ton/ha of diatomite compared to non-application of diatomite increased by 29, 29, 77 and 39% in irrigation regimes including dry farming, one irrigation in vegetative stage, one irrigation in reproductive stage, two irrigations including stage, respectively. Vegetative and reproductive were in the trait of seed yield. Based on the results of interaction effects in irrigation treatment in vegetative and reproductive stage and other low irrigation treatments including irrigation in vegetative stage, irrigation in reproductive stage and dry farming application of 3.5 ton/ha diatomite with application of 7 ton/ha of diatomite in all studied traits in a statistical group it placed; Therefore, it can be said that the use of 3.5 ton/ha diatomite is the most appropriate amount in increasing the yield of chickpeas under low irrigation regimes.
 
Conclusion
Generally, the results showed that the amount of irrigation water had a significant effect on yield and yield components of chickpea, thus reducing irrigation water in the treatments of two irrigations: one vegetative stage and one reproductive stage, one irrigation in reproductive stage, one irrigation in vegetative stage and dry farming in compared to the full irrigation treatment, it reduce 37, 63, 81 and 86% in seed yield, respectively, and this decreasing trend in other measured traits was observed. At the same time, reducing the amount of irrigation water increased the percentage of pod unfilled. However, the negative effects of reduced irrigation water can be reduced by using diatomite. The result showed that the application of 3.5 ton/ha diatomite at different irrigation levels in all measured traits didn't differ significantly from the application of 7 ton/ha of diatomite. Based on this, it can be said that the application of 3.5 ton/ha is the optimal amount. In general, using advanced methods such as using diatomite as a super absorbent while saving the cost of crop production in dry areas, by maintaining and storing moisture in the soil and improving water permeability in the soil can be an effective step in order to exploit limited water resources and increase seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Harvest index
  • Moisture stress
  • Number of seeds per pod
  • Seed yield
  1. Abdalla, M. 2010. Sustainable effects of diatomite on the growth criteria and phytochemical contents of Vicia faba Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(5): 1076-1089.
  2. Abdalla, M. 2011. Beneficial of diatomite on the growth, the biochemical contents and polymorphic DNA in Lopinus albus plants grown under water stress. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 2(2): 207-220.
  3. Abhari, A., and Haresabadi, B. 2017. The effect of super absorbent on yield and yield components of chickpea under season terminal drought stress conditions. Journal of Crop Production 10(1): 191-202.
  4. Anwar, M.R., Makenzie, B.A., and Hill, G.D. 2003. Phenology and growth response to irrigation and sowing date of Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum ) in a cool temperate sub humid climate. Journal of Agricultural Science 141: 273-284.
  5. Benjamin, J.G., and Nielsen, D.C. 2006. Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. Field Crops Research 97: 248-253.
  6. Chaiechi, M., Rostamzadeh, M., and Esmaielian, K.S. 2004. Examination for resistance of black chickpea genotypes to drought stress under different irrigation regimes. Journal of Agricultural Science & Natural Resource 10: 126-135. (In Persian with English Summary).
  7. Dehahmadi, R., Parsa, M., and Ganejali, A. 2010. Effect of drought stress on phenological characteristics and yield component on chickpea in green house. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 8(1): 157-166. (In Persian).
  8. Eivazi, A., Taghikhani, H., Shiralizade, S.H., Rezayi, M., and Mousavi, S.H. 2012. Evaluation of response of chickpea genotypes to water deficit at different growth stages by using drought tolerance indices. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 3(1):81-92. (In Persian with English Summary).
  9. Fang, X., Turner, N.C., Yan, G., and Siddique, K.H.M. 2010. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum ) under terminal drought. Journal of Experimental Botany 61: 335-345.
  10. Gholamizali, A., Ehsanzade, P., and Razmjoo, J. 2016. Effects of seed priming and irrigation regimes on grain yield and components of spring and autumn sown Hashem chickpea genotype in northern Lorestan. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 47(1): 119-130. (In Persian).
  11. Goldani, M., and Rezvani-Moghaddam, P. 2007. The effect of different irrigation regimes and planting dates on phenological characteristics and growth indices of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes under rain fed and irrigated condition in Mashhad. Journal of Agricultural Science & Natural Resource 14: 229-242. (In Persian with English Summary).
  12. Hajirasouli, F. 2018. Effect of different levels of moisture and diatomite on growth characteristics and yield of common millet in Birjand region. MThesis. University of Birjand, Birjand.
  13. Hanan, M.H., Nadia, A.M., and Salem, 2014. Phisiological effects of diatomaceous earth on Mentha viridis plants grown under drought condition. Scientific Journal Flowers & Ornamental Plants 1(2):105-115.
  14. Jalota, S.K., Anil, K., and Harman, W.L. 2006. Assessing the response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) yield to irrigation water on two soils in Punjab (India): A simulation analysis using the CROPMAN model. Agricultural Water Management 79: 312-
  15. Keshavarz, L., Farahbakhsh, H., and Golkar, H. 2012. The effects of drought stress and super absorbent polymer on morphophysiological traits of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Science 3(1): 148-154.
  16. Khalili-Mahalleh, J., Heidari-Sharifabad, G., Nourmohammadi, F., Darvish, I., Majidi-Haravan, E., and Valizadegan, E. 2011. Effect of superabsorbent polymer (Tarawat A200) on forage yield and qualitative characters in corn under deficit irrigation condition in Khoy zone (Northwest of Iran). Advanced in Environmental Biology 5(9): 2579-2587.
  17. Khazai, H.R., and Kafi, M. 2003. Effect of drought stress on root growth and dry matter partitioning between roots and shoots of winter wheat. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 1(1): 33-41. (In Persian).
  18. Kumar, J., and Abbo, S. 2001. Genetics of flowering time in chickpea and its bearing on productivity in semi-arid environments. Advances in Agronomy 72: 107-138.
  19. Leport, L., Turner, N.C., French, R.J., Barr, M.B., Dude, R., Davies, S.L., Tennant, D., and Siddique, K.H.M. 1999. Physiological response of chickpea genotypes to terminal drought in a Mediterranean type environment. European Journal Agronomy 11(3): 279- 291.
  20. Leport, L., Turner, N.C., Davies, S.L., and Siddique, K.H.M. 2006. Variation in pod production and abortion among chickpea cultivars under terminal drought. European Journal of Agronomy 24: 236-246.
  21. Liu, F., Jensen, C.R., and Andersen, M.N. 2004. Drought stress effect on carbohydrate concentration in soybean leaves and pods during early reproductive development: its implication in altering pod set. Field Crops Research 86: 1-13.
  22. Malhorta, R.S., Singh, K.B., and Saxena, M.C. 1997. Effect of irrigation on winter-sown chickpea in a Mediterranean environment. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 178: 237-
  23. Mohammadi, Q.H., Ghasemi-Golezani, K., Javanshir, A., and Moghaddam, M. 2007. The effect of water limitation on yield of three chickpea. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resource 2: 109-120. (In Persian with English Summary).
  24. Rafiolhosseini, M., Salehi, F., and Mazhari, M. 2016. The effect of drought stress intensity and stage on agronomic characteristics of two common Bean cDesert Ecosystem Engineering Journal 5(11): 45-56. (In Persian with English Summary).
  25. Ravi, N., Sharma, H.M., Singh, R.N.P., and Nandan, R. 2008. Response of late-sown chickpea to irrigation and foliar nutrition in calcareous soil. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology 4: 5-
  26. Rezvani-Moghadam, P., and Sadeghi-Samarjan, R. 2010. Effect of sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6(2): 315-325. (In Persian).
  27. Sabaghpour, S.H., Sharifi, A., and Aradatmand-Asli, D. 2019. The effect of biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of improved chickpea varieties under rainfed conditions. Iranian Journal of Pluses Research 10(2): 49-61. (In Persian with English Summary).
  28. Saman, M., Sepehri, A., Ahmadvand, G., and Sabaghpour, H. 2011. The effect of drought stress in the end of the season on yield and yield components of five genotypes of chickpea. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 41(2): 259-269. (In Persian with English Summary).
  29. Savvas, D., Giotis, D., Chatzieustratiou, E., Bakea, M., and Patakioutas, G. 2009. Silicon supply in soiless cultivations of zucchini alleviates stress induced by salinity and powdery mildew infections. Enviromental and Experimental Botany 65: 11-17.
  30. Singh, D.P., Singh, P., Sharma, H.C., and Turner, N.C. 1987. Influence of water deficit on the water relations, canopy gas exchange and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Field Crops Research 16: 231-241.
  31. Soltani, A., Khooie, F.R., Ghassemi-Golezani, K., and Moghaddam, M. 2001. A simulation study of chickpea crop response to limited irrigation in a semiarid environment. Agriculture Water Management 49: 225-237.
  32. Turner, N.C. 2003. Adaptation to drought: lessons from studies with chickpea. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 2: 11-