تأثیر بذرمال و محلول‌پاشی اسیدهای آمینه مختلف روی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد عدس (Lens culinaris Medik.) در کشت دیرهنگام

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثر بذرمال و محلول‌پاشی اسید‌های آمینه مختلف بر روی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد عدس، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1397 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. عوامل مورد بررسی شامل نحوه کاربرد آمینواسیدها در سه سطح بذرمال، محلول‌پاشی و بذرمال+محلول‌پاشی به عنوان عامل اول و کاربرد انواع آمینواسیدها در پنج سطح آرژنین، آسپارتیک اسید، پرولین، اسیدآمینه تجاری و آب مقطر (شاهد) به عنوان عامل دوم در نظر گرفته شد. مقدار مصرف اسیدهای آمینه یک گرم در لیتر بود. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین کلروفیل کل، کلروفیل a و کلروفیل b از بذرمال با آسپارتیک اسید به ترتیب با 18/16، 92/ 13 و 53/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ به دست آمد. بذرمال و محلول‌پاشی با اسید آسپارتیک با 11/13 غلاف در بوته بیشتر از سایر تیمارها بود. کاربرد اسیدآمینه آسپارتیک اسید با 88/71 گرم در متر مربع بیشترین عملکرد را تولید کرد که بیش از سه برابر عملکرد حاصل از استفاده از آب مقطر (شاهد) بود. کاربرد آرژنین (51/ 55 گرم در متر مربع)، اسیدآمینه تجاری (45/44 گرم در متر مربع) و پرولین (78/32 گرم در متر مربع) به ترتیب در رتبه‌های بعدی قرار گرفت. کاربرد آسپارتیک اسید به صورت پرایمینگ و محلول‌پاشی با بیشترین عملکرد به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of priming and foliar application of different amino acids on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in late sowing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Heidarzadeh
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy
  • Hossein Ebrahimi Esborezi
Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Lentil is used mainly for human consumption as a source of protein and carbohydrate in soups, stews and vegetarian dishes. It is grown to improve economic returns to producers, diversify and lengthen crop rotations, and reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirement. Lentil, a member of the legume family, Leguminosae, can supply a significant portion of its nitrogen requirement by fixing nitrogen from the air when it is inoculated with the appropriate rhizobial inoculant. The pattern of nutrients in the proximal composition of lentil is similar to that of other grain legumes, but with seed protein content of 19.5–35.5%. Fiber concentration is low and is largely within the seed testa, so the fiber in lentil meal can be reduced if it is de-hulled before grinding. In addition to high-quality protein, essential amino acids, and major minerals, its seed contains iron up to 505 mg per kg and zinc up to 330 mg per kg on a whole seed basis. Amino acids help in tissue protein formation. Some amino acids are not synthesized in the body and it is necessary to take them in diet. Lentils contain different amino acids that can be used by most people. This research was carried out to study the effect of different Amino Acids on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, proline content and seed yield of Lentil in delayed planting.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effect of different amino acids on yield and biochemical traits of lentil, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in the research farm of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, through May to July 2018. The factors studied included mode of application (priming, spraying and priming+spraying) and type of amino acids (Arginine, Aspartic acid, Proline, trade amino acid and distilled water (control)). The amount of amino acids used was 1 g per liter. In this study, leaf, stem, pod and total fresh weight, leaf area, leaf to stem, chlorophyll content (a, b and total), the number of pods per square meter, 1000 grain weight, harvest index and seed yield were determined. Statistical analysis of data was performed using SAS software version 9.4. To compare the means, the least significant difference (LSD) test was used at a 5% probability level. Also Excel software was used to obtain different equations and draw curves and chartsharts.
 
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest total chlorophyll (16.18 mg gF.W-1), chlorophyll a (13.92 mg gF.W1) and chlorophyll b (2.53 mg gF.W-1) was obtained from the priming with aspartic acid. The number of pods per plant (13.11) was more than the others in priming and spraying with aspartic acid. Amino acid application produced more leaf than control (distilled water). The arginine, aspartic acid, proline and commercial amino acids produced 46, 55, 20 and 52% more leaf fresh weight, respectively. The application of aspartic acid with 88.87 g m-2 produced the highest yield (more than three-fold relative to the control), followed by the application of arginine (55.51 g m-2), commercial amine (44.4 g m-2) and proline (32.78 g m2). The application of aspartic acid via both priming and spraying is suggested as the best treatment.
 
Conclusion
Plants create amino acids from primary elements they absorb from the environment. Carbon and oxygen are obtained from the air. Hydrogen and nitrogen are obtained from the soil. Inside the plant, amino acids are formed through metabolic pathways. Plants, like all other forms of life, require amino acids to create cells. These cells are then used to build various vital parts of a plant like roots and leaves. Amino acids are quite literally the foundation of life, especially when it comes to plants. If plants can utilize supplementary amino acids without creating them out of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sometimes sulfur, they would have much more available energy to use where it is necessary. When amino acids are properly applied, the impacts are profound. According to the results of this study, amino acids can reduce the stress of delayed planting. In the absence of amino acid, yield reduction will be higher. The application of aspartic acid via both priming and spraying is suggested as the best treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arginine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Harvest index
  • Proline
  • Seed yield
  1. Agricultural Statistics, Crops. Volume 1: 1395-1396. (In Farsi).
  2. Akladious, S.A., and Abbas, S.M. 2013. Alleviaton of seawater stress on tomato by foliar application of aspartic acid and glutathione. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 9(3): 282-298.
  3. Al-Said, M.A., and Kamal, A.M. 2008. Effect of folair spray with folic acid and some amino acids and some amino acids on flowering yield and quality of sweet pepper. Journal of Agricultural Science 33(10): 7403-7412.
  4. Ashraf, M., and Foola, M.R. 2007. Roles of glycinebetaine and proline in improving plant abioti stress tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59: 206-216.
  5. Awad, E.M., Abd El-Hameed, A.M., and Shall, Z.S. 2007. Effect of glycine, lysine and nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, yield and chemical composition of potato. Journal of Agricultural Science 32(10): 8541-8551.
  6. Biancucci, M., Mattioli, R., Moubayidin, L., Sabatini, S., Costantino, P., and Trovato, M. 2015. Proline affects the size of the root meristematic zone in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biology 15: 263.
  7. Cambri, D., Filippini, L., Apone, F., Arciello, S., Colucci, G., and Portoso, D. 2008. Effect of Aminoplant on expression of selected genes in Arabidopsis thaliana spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Folia Horticulturae 22: 9-13.
  8. Chen, J., Wu, F.H., Wang, W.H., Zheng, C.J., Lin, G.H., Dong, X.J., He, J.X., Pei, Z.M., and Zheng, H.L. 2011. Hydrogen sulphide enhances photosynthesis through promoting chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthetic enzyme expression, and thiol redox modification in Spinacia oleracea Journal of Experimental Botany 62: 4481-4493.
  9. Deivanai, S., Xavier, R., Vinod, V., Timalata, K., and Lim, O.F. 2011. Role of exogenous proline in ameliorating salt stress at early stage in two rice cultivars. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry 7(4): 157-174.
  10. El-Naggar, A.H. 2009. Response of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to foliar nutrition. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5: 622-630.
  11. Erskine, W., and Saxena, M.C. 1993. Lentil in South Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar on Lentils in South Asia, 11-15 March 1991, New Delhi, India, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 236 pp.
  12. Faten, S.A., Shaheen, A.M., Ahmed, A.A., and Mahmoud, A.R. 2010. Effect of foliar application of amino acids as antioxidants on growth, yield and characteristics of Squash. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 6: 583-588.
  13. Forde, B.G., and Lea, P.J. 2007. Glutamate in plants: metabolism, regulation, and signaling. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 2339-2358.
  14. Ghanem, M.E., Marrou, H., Biradar, C., and Sinclair, T.R. 2015. Production potential of Lentil (Lens culinaris ) in East Africa. Agricultural Systems 137: 24-38.
  15. Haj Seyed Hadi, M.R., and Rezaee Ghale, H. 2016. Effects of vermicompost and foliar application of amino acids and urea on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla ). Iranian Jour Gross nal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 31(6): 1057-1070. (In Persian).
  16. Häusler, R.E., Ludewig, F., and Krueger, S. 2014. Amino acids-A life between metabolism and signaling. Plant Science 229: 225-237.
  17. Hiscox, A., and Israelstam, G. 1979. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 1332-1334.
  18. Jahani, R., Hassani, A., and Samadi, A. 2018. Effect of foliar application of Urea, Aspartic Acid and Glutamic Acid on growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum). Applied Soil Research 5(2): 95-107. (In Persian).
  19. Kakani, V.G., Prasad, P.V.V., Craufurd, P.Q., and Wheeler, T.R. 2002. Response of in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) genotype to temperature. Plant Cell and Environment 25: 1651-1661.
  20. Kamar, M.E., and Omar, A. 1987. Effect of nitrogen levels and spraying with aminal-forte (amino acids salvation) on yield of cucumber and potatoes. Journal of Agricultural Science Mansoura University 12(4): 900-907.
  21. Karima, M., Gamal, E.D., and Abdel-Wahed, M.S.A. 2005. Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. International of Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7(3): 376-380.
  22. Karuppaiah, P., Manivonnar, K., Andrasakaron, S.V., and Kuppusamy, G. 2000. Responses of cucumber to foliar application of nutrients on light mine spoil. Journal of the Indian Society of soil Science 49(1): 150-
  23. Korbu, 2009. Improving Production and Productivity of Chickpea and Lentil in Ethiopia Production Manual. Melkasa, Ethiopia.
  24. Mahmoudi, A.A. 2006. Effect of sowing season and seeding density on grain yield in lentil (Local var. Robat) under dryland conditions of Nothern Khorasan. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences: 8(3): 232-240 (In Persian).
  25. Nanjo, T., Fujita, M., Seki, M., Kato, M., Tabata, S., and Shinozaki, K. 2003. Toxicity of free proline revealed in an arabidopsis TDNA- agged mutant deficient in proline dehydrogenase. Plant Cell Physiology 44: 541-548.
  26. Nasibi, F., and Kalantari, K.H. 2009. Influence of nitric oxide in protection of tomato seedling against oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress. Acta Physiologia Plantarum 1: 1037-
  27. Nasibi, F., Barand, A., and Kalantari, K.H. 2013. The effect of arginine pretreatment on germination, growth and physiological parameters in the increase of low temperature tolerance in Pistacia vera in vitro culture. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 51: 918-
  28. Parsa, M., and A. Bagheri. 2008. Legumes. Mashhad University Jahad Press. 522p. (In Persian).
  29. Raeisi, M., Farahani, L., and Palashi, M. 2014. Changes of qualitative and quantitative properties of radish (Raphanus sativus) under foliar spraying through amino acid. International Journal of Biosciences 4(1): 463-468.
  30. Sairam, R.K., Srivastava, G.C., Agarwal, S.A., and Meena, R.C. 2005. Difference in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Plant Biology 49: 85-91.
  31. Shalaby, T.A., and El-Ramady. 2014. Effect of foliar application of bio-stimulants on growth, yield, components, and storability of garlic (Allium sativum). Australian Journal of Crop Science 8(2): 271-275.
  32. Slawik, M. 2005. Production of Norway spruce seedlings on substrate mixes using growth stimulants. Journal of Forest Science 51(1): 15-23.
  33. Talat, A., Nawaz, K., Hussian, K., and Hayat Bhatti, K. 2013. Foliar application of proline for salt tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. World Applied Sciences Journal 22(4): 547-554.

Thomas, J., Mandal, A., and Raj Kumar, R. 2009. Role of biologically active amino acid formulations on quality and crop productivity of tea (Camellia sp.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 4: 228-236.