عنوان مقاله [English]
Pulses have great contribution in human nutrition and agriculture due to having high protein content (nearly 2-fold more than cereals) and ability to biological nitrogen fixation. Pulses cultivation in dry lands requires some management issues like using superabsorbent and best nutrition managements in dry farming conditions. Superabsorbent are materials that absorb and hold water several times more than their weight, therefore they could increase plant available water and consequently could increase plant water potential. Due to importance of polymers in improving soil water holding capacity, present study was conducted with the aim of study the effect of phosphate Barvar-2 biofertilizer, iron nano-chelate and superabsorbent on qualitative and quantitative yield of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) under dry farming conditions.
Material and Methods
Present study was conducted during 2015-2016 cropping year in a land located in Pole-Hero village, Khorram Abad town. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphate Barvar-2 biofertilizer, iron nano-chelate and superabsorbent on qualitative and quantitative yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under dry farming conditions. The study was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was superabsorbent at two levels including S1 (without application) and S2 (80 kg/ha), the second factor was iron nano-chelate in three levels including F1 (foliar application of distilled water), F2 (1/1000) and F3 (2/1000) and third factor was phosphate Barvar-2 in two levels including B1 (non-application) and B2 (100 g/ha). At the end of growth season traits including sheath per plant, grain per plant, 100-grain weight were measured. Biological yield and grain yield, harvest index and grain protein percent (using NIR device) were measured, as well. Data were analyzed using MSTAT-C and mean comparisons were conducted via Duncan multiple range test and graphs were plotted using Excel software.
Results and Discussion
Results of mean comparisons of the triple effects of treatments showed that there were significant differences between treatments in terms of grain yield and yield components, leaf chlorophyll index, grain protein yield (excluding harvest index and 100-grain weight). Superabsorbent via maintaining soil moisture and preventing nitrogen leaching, iron nano-chelate via providing iron required for nitrogen metabolism and phosphate Barvar-2 through affecting nitrogen fixation caused increase in grain protein and chickpea chlorophyll index. It can also be stated that co-application of superabsorbent and foliar application of iron nano-chelate and phosphate Barvar-2 through alleviating the decrease in soil moisture and keeping soil water and providing sufficient nutrients by increasing secondary branches and spikes number per plant and grain number per plant could increase grain yield. The highest and lowest grain yield obtained in S2F3B2 and S1F1B1 treatments by 1623 and 950 kg/ha, respectively. According to the results, S2F2B2, S2F3B2, S1F3B2 and S1F2B2 had no significant difference in terms of grain yield and the highest and lowest grain yield by 1623 and 950 kg/ha obtained in S2F3B2 (superabsorbent, iron nano-chelate foliar application 2/1000 and phosphate Barvar-2) and S1F1B1 (control), respectively. Results showed that highest grain protein content by 21.86 percent was related to S2F3B2 (superabsorbent, iron nano-chelate foliar application 2/1000 and phosphate Barvar-2) and the lowest content was in S1F1B1 by 19.36 percent. The role of combined application of treatments in the study could be attributed to increase in water availability in soil and consequently higher water holding capacity in plant tissues, especially leaf tissues. This causes increase in plant photosynthetic ability and consequently grain protein yield which is a function of grain yield.
Foliar application of iron nan-chelate and also phosphate Barvar-2 biofertilizer and superabsorbent significantly affected qualitative and quantitative traits of chickpea such as grain yield, biological yield, leaf chlorophyll and grain protein content and highest levels of studied treatments (S2F2B2) resulted to highest amounts of studied traits. It could be said that application of treatments, in addition to alleviating drought stress and reducing application of chemical phosphorous fertilizers, resulted to increase in qualitative and quantitative traits and decreasing environmental pollution and increase in some nutrients concentration in soil.