تغییرات تسهیم و انتقال مجدد مواد پرورده در ماشک دیم (Vicia sativa) رقم مراغه تحت تأثیر کودهای بیولوژیک و آبیاری تکمیلی در سیستم تلفیقی درخت-گیاه زراعی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دکتری زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی ، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه زیست‌شناسی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

تولید، انتقال مجدد و بهبود ویژگی‌های کیفی گیاهان زراعی به‌ویژه تحت تنش کم‌آبی از مبـانی اساسـی تعیـین و بررسـی اخـتلاف عملکـرد در گونه‌ها و رقم‌های زراعی است. این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه ارومیه در دو سال زراعی (1395 و 1396) انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت دیم و یک بار آبیاری تکمیلی به عنوان فاکتور اول و تیمار کاربرد کودهای زیستی در هشت سطح (شاهد، قارچ میکوریزا، ازتوباکتر، تیوباسیلوس، ازتوباکتر+ قارچ میکوریزا، تیوباسیلوس+ قارچ میکوریزا، ازتوباکتر+تیوباسیلوس و ازتوباکتر+ تیوباسیلوس+ قارچ میکوریزا) به عنوان فاکتور دوم بودند. نتایج نشان داد با انجام آبیاری تکمیلی تعداد غلاف در بوته ماشک افزایش یافت؛ اما بیشترین میزان و کارآیی انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی و درصد پروتئین علوفه ماشک در شرایط دیم به‌دست آمد. همچنین تعداد غلاف در بوته و پروتئین علوفه ماشک تحت تأثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی افزایش معنی‌داری یافتند؛ در حالی که بیشترین میزان و کارآیی انتقال مجدد مواد فتوسنتزی ماشک در تیمار بدون کاربرد کود زیستی (شاهد) به‌دست آمد. گیاهان ماشک در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی و کاربرد ترکیبی قارچ میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر به واسطه دارابودن حداکثر میزان کلونیزاسیون ریشه (45/63 درصد) و محتوای رطوبت نسبی بالا (50/69 درصد)، بیشترین تعداد دانه در بوته (94/20 عدد) و وزن1000دانه (7/44 گرم) را دارا بودند که در نتیجه منجر به حصول حداکثر عملکرد دانه (2/1873 کیلوگرم در هکتار) گردید. لذا، کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای زیستی در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی جهت افزایش تولید ماشک در سیستم تلفیقی درخت-گیاه زراعی می‌تواند موجب بهبود خصوصیات کمی و کیفی آن شود که در راستای کشاورزی پایدار نیز می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in partitioning and remobilization of assimilate in Maragheh vetch (Vicia sativa) cultivar under the influence of biological fertilizers and supplementary irrigation in the integrated tree, and crop system

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeid heydarzadeh 1
  • Jalal Jalilian 2
  • Alireza Pirzad 3
  • Rashid Jamei 4
1 Former PhD. Student of Plant Production and Genetics, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Urmia University
4 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Vetch is one of the legume family that is widely cultivated as a cover crop, reduce erosion, and increase soil fertility. Drought stress that occurs during the reproductive growth period, adversely affects yield and yield components. Supplementary irrigation can be efficient technique to cope with the limited water availability and to stabilize the crop yields. Biological fertilizers such as mycorrhizal fungi, Azotobacter and Thiobacillus spp < /em> play an important role in sustainable agriculture. The mycorrhizal symbiosis with plants causes changes in plant water relations and thus improve drought resistance or tolerance in the host plant. Azotobacter has the potentiality to produce different types of amino acids, plant growth hormones, antifungal antibiotics, and siderophore and has a unique ability of atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the soil. The application of sulfur coupled with Thiobacillus spp renders alkali soils fit for cultivation of crops. The formation of sulphuric acid by Thiobacillus spp in soil increases the level of soluble P, K, Ca, Mg, Al and Mn ion. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of biofertilizers treatment on yield and some quality traits of Vetch (Vicia sativa) under Agroforestry system.
 
Materials and Methods
This factorial experiment was performed as a complete randomized block design with three replications at Urmia University in two years (2016 and 2017). Experimental treatments included once supplemental irrigation and dry farming as the first factor and application of biofertilizers at eight levels {Control (non-application of fertilizer), Mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices), Azotobacter, Thiobacillus spp, Azotobacter + Mycorrhiza (R. intraradices), Thiobacillus spp + Mycorrhiza (R. intraradices), Azotobacter + Thiobacillus spp, Azotobacter + Thiobacillus spp + Mycorrhizal fungus (R. intraradices)} were the second factor. Supplementary irrigation treatment was applied at the flowering stage (10%) for two years. Vetch plants were harvested on 25-27th of June in two years. At harvest, from each treatment ten plants were taken randomly and plant height, pod per plant, seed per plant, 100 grain weight, were recorded. Whole plot was harvested for determination of seed yield. The analysis of variance for the two-year data was performed using GLM procedure (SAS 9.1.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) as combined over years. The effects of irrigation regimes, the application of biofertilizers and interactions of these two factors were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (P≤ 0.05).
 
Results and Discussion
The results showed that supplementary irrigation increased the number of pods per plant and forage calcium content. But the highest rate and efficiency of photosynthetic materials remobilization and forage protein content were obtained in farming condition. Also, the number of pods per plant, the percentage of calcium and protein content of forage increased significantly due to the application of biological fertilizers. Thus, the combined application of mycorrhizal + Azotobacter treatment increased the number of pods per plant, and protein content of forage by 15.55% and 18.88%, respectively, as compared to the Control. While the highest rate and efficiency of photosynthetic materials remobilization were obtained in non-biofertilizer treatment (control). Supplementary irrigated vetch plants under combined application of mycorrhiza and Azotobacter, due to the having maximum amount of root colonization (63.45%) and relative water content (69.50%), had the highest number of seeds per plant (204.94) and 100 seed weight (4.47 g), which resulted in maximum seed yield (187.32 g/m2). Generally, the results of the experiment showed that in rainfed conditions, the amount of remobilization of photosynthetic materials increased. Subsequently, in this situation, the efficiency of the remobilization and also the remobilization share in grain filling increased, which probably reduced the filling time of the seeds. Thus, increase in the filling speed of the seeds, can partly compensate for the reduction of the material's transfer time to the seed. In the absence of water stress, more material is transferred to the seeds and the final weight of the seeds increases, and consequently the final yield of the seeds increases.
 
Conclusion
Application of dual inoculation of mycorrhiza and Azotobacter could improve the uptake of yield and yield components in vetch under Agroforestry system. Therefore, according to the findings of this research, the combined use of biological fertilizers to increase yield and maintain long-term production in an agroforestry system under rain-fed conditions can be desirable for sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azotobacter
  • Efficiency of remobilization
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Thiobacillus spp
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