اثر همزیستی میکوریزا و آبیاری تکمیلی بر عملکرد و عناصر دانه و بقایای گیاهی نخود (Cicer arietinum)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

زمان پایان بارندگی­های بهاره در موفقیت زراعت دیم مؤثر است. دو راهکار اساسی (آبیاری تکمیلی و روابط قارچ-ریشه) برای بهبود عملکرد گیاهان زراعی با اثر هم­افزایی در اعمال توأم آن‌ها وجود دارد. برای بررسی تلقیح میکوریزایی نخود دیم، آزمایشی دوساله به ‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک ­کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی آذربایجان‌غربی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل زمان پایان بارندگی (20اردیبهشت‌ماه، سوم خردادماه و 17خردادماه)، تلقیح میکوریزا (شاهد و قارچ گونه Glomus intraradices) و آبیاری (دیم و یک نوبت آبیاری تکمیلی) بودند. تلقیح میکوریزایی تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی باعث افزایش معنی­دار عناصر فسفر، کلسیم و خاکستر بقایا، پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه نخود نسبت به کشت دیم شد. ادامه بارندگی تا 17خرداد، عملکرد بقایا (1451کیلوگرم در هکتار) و دانه (602کیلوگرم در هکتار) نخود در گیاهان میکوریزایی را تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به پایان زودهنگام بارندگی­ها (20اردیبهشت‌ماه وسوم خردادماه) افزایش بیشتری داد. به‌طورکلی کیفیت بقایا و  دانه نخود در کشت دیم با یک نوبت آبیاری بهبود یافت. تلقیح میکوریزایی صرفنظر از زمان پایان بارندگی در میزان بهبود کیفیت و عملکرد دانه (در آبیاری تکمیلی تا 20درصد و در کشت دیم تا 24درصد) مؤثر بود. نتایج نشان داد که دو راهکار آبیاری تکمیلی و تلقیح میکوریزایی روش­های قابل اعتمادی برای دستیابی به عملکرد مطلوب درکشت دیم نخود می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis and supplemental irrigation on yield, grain nutrients and plant residues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Mazlomi Mamyandi
  • Alireza Pirzad
  • Jalal Jalilian
Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
As water supplies decline and/or the cost of water increases, it is clear that producers are being driven toward deficit irrigation management, and some level of plant water stress is inevitable. The challenge is to define management systems that minimize the negative impact of the expected stress. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., Fabaceae family), a resistant pulse plant to drought and heat, producesan acceptable yield in poor soils. Chickpea is also used as a low-cost product in semi-arid tropical regions of cropping systems. Since the chickpea production in most regions is limited caused by lack of moistureparticularly during the generative growth stage, irrigation can be effective for improving the performance and its stability. Supplemental irrigation has a key role to reduce tensions in the critical stages of plant growth, and also compensate the serious yield lost. The occurrence of drought stress in some stages of plant growth could be irreparable damages. The recognition of the critical stages of plant growth and water stress when they need to meet in order to obtain maximum yield. West Azerbaijan has a large portion of the area under cultivation and production of chickpea (66500 ha), especially in rainfed condition. Plant rhizosphere is known to be preferred ecological niche for soil microorganisms due to rich nutrient availability. Rhizosphere microorganisms (particularly fungi) can improve plant performance under stress environments and, consequently, enhance yield. There is considerable evidence to suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have the potential to increase the tolerance of their host plants to water-deficit stress. The mycorrhizal fungi improve profitability nutritional status of host plant due to water and nutrient (especially P) uptake in irrigated and rainfed conditions.
 
Materials & Methods
A two-year (2014-2015) factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. Treatments were rain interrupted (10 May, 24May and 7 June), mycorrhizal symbiosis (non-mycorrhizal plants and inoculation with Glomus intraradices) and irrigation (rainfed and one supplemental irrigation). Plant residues (ash, protein, calcium, potassium and phosphorus) and grain (protein, potassium and phosphorus) quality were respectively determined at podding and seed maturity (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2005; AACC, 2000). Chickpea plant residuesand grain yields were measured by harvesting of 1 m2 of each plot. Data were analyzed using SAS9.1 and means were compared by Duncan's new multiple range test (MRT) at 5% level of probability.
 
Results & Discussion
The combined analysis of 2-year data showed a significant effects of year, rain interruption, mycorrhiza and supplemental irrigation on the forage (plant residues) yield and quality (ash, calcium, phosphorus and protein), and also significant effect on the grain yield and quality (potassium, phosphorus and protein). Significant interaction effects of year, rain interruption, mycorrhiza and supplemental irrigation on quality of plant residuesand grain exhibited varied response of chickpea to these above studied treatments. Means comparison indicated that in the studied area one irrigation improved the yield of chickpea grain and plant residues. In the current study, it was found that the inoculation of chickpea with G. intraradices regardless of irrigation regimes enhanced theplant residues (phosphorus, calcium, ash and protein) and grain (phosphorus and protein) quality. Delay in rain (from 10 May to 7 June) increased the performance of chickpea, so the highest grain and forage (plant residues) yield were obtained from irrigated mycorrizal plants in continuing rainfall until the 7 June. Chickpea grain yield was more under supplemental irrigation than dryland farming. The early rain interruption showed a bigger yield loss because of longer stress, but the supplemental irrigation compensated a part of this negative effect. The yield compensation in mycorrhizal chickpea plants was better than non-mycorrhizal one. Rainfall continued up to 7 June, increased the plant residues (1451 kg/ha) and grain (602 kg/ha) in irrigated mycorrhizal plants more than earlier rain interruption (10 and 24 May).
 
Conclusion
Generally, quality of rainfed chickpea plant residues and grain were improved by supplemental irrigation. Mycorrhizal symbiosis, regardless to rainfall interruption, enhanced the quality of chickpea plant residues and grain yield (up to 20 % for supplementary irrigation and 24% for rainfed). Results showed that the supplemental irrigation and mycorrhizal symbiosis are reliable techniques to achieve optimal performance of rainfed chickpea.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cicer arietinum
  • Glomus intraradices
  • Nutrients, Protein
  • Supplenetal irrigation
1. Agricultural Statistics. 2014. The Office of Statistics and Information Technology, Ministry of Agriculture Jihad.
2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC, Vol. II. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 18th Edition, Washington DC.
3. Benami. A., and Ofen, A. 1984. Irrigation Engineering-Sprinkler, Trickle and Surface Irrigation: Principles, Design and Agricultural Practices. Irrigation Engineering Scientific Publications.
4. Boomsma, C.R., and Vyn, T.J. 2008. Maize drought tolerance: potential improvements through arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Field Crops Research 108: 14-31.
5. Canci, H., and Toker, C. 2009. Evaluation of annual wild Cicer species for drought and heat resistance under field conditions. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56: 1-6.
6. Evelin, H., Kapoor, R., and Giri, B. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Journal of Annals of Botany 104: 1263-1280.
7. Ganjali, A., Bagheri, A., and Porsa, H. 2009. Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm for drought resistance. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7(1): 185-196. (In Persian with English Summary).
8. Goicoechea, N., Antolin, M.C., and Sanches-Diaz, M. 1997. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought stressed alfalfa. Journal of Plant and Soil 192: 261-268.
9. Habibi, S., Farzaneh, M., and Meskarbashee, M. 2013. Effects of inoculation with mycorrhiza (Glomus spp.) on growth and nutrient uptake of wheat in saline conditions. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research 44(3): 311-320. (In Persian with English Summary).
10. Habibzadeh, Y., Pirzad, A., Zardashti, M.R., Jalilian, J., and Eini, O. 2013. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on seed and protein yield under water-deficit stress in Mung Bean. Agronomy Journal 105: 79-84.
11. Habibzadeh, Y., Jalilian, J., Zardashti, M.R., Pirzad, A., and Eini, O. 2015. Some morpho-physiological characteristics of Mung Bean mycorrhizal plant under different irrigation regimes in field condition. Journal of Plant Nutrition 38(11): 1754-1767.
12. Hopkins, W.G., and Huner, N.P.A. 2009. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons.
13. Jafar Dokht, R., Mosavi Nik, S.M., Mehraban, A., and Basiri, M. 2015. Effect of water stress and foliar micronutrient application on physiological characteristics and nutrient uptake in mung bean. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 8: 121-141. (In Persian with English Summary).
14. Kafi, M., Zand, E., Kamkar, B., Mahdavi-Damghani, A., and Abbasi, F. 2010. Plant Physiology (Translate). Jihad daneshgahi of Mashhad Press. (In Persian).
15. KhosroShahi Asl, A. 1997. Food Analytical Chemistry. Urmia University Press. (In Persian).
16. Manoharan, P.T., Shamugaiah, V., Balasubramanian, N., and Gomathinayagam, S. 2010. Influence of AM fungi on the growth and physiological status of Erythrina variegate Linn. grown under different water stress conditions. European Journal of Soil Biology 46: 151-156.
17. Mathur, N., and Vyas, A. 2000. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production, nutrient uptake and physiological changes in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. under water stress. Journal of Arid Environment 45: 191-195.
18. Mosse, J. 1990. Nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor for ten cereals and six legumes or oilseeds. A reappraisal of its definition and determination. Variation according to species and to seed protein content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38(1): 18-24.
19. Naseri, R., Rahimi, M.J., Siyadat, S.A., and Mirzaei, A. 2015. The effects of supplementary irrigation and different plant densities on morphological traits, yield and its components and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Sirvan region in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 6(1): 78-91. (In Persian with English Summary).
20. Neumann, E., and George, E. 2004. Colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) enhanced phosphorus uptake from dry soil in Sorghum bicolor L. Plant and Soil 261(1): 245-255.
21. Oweis, T., and Hachum, A. 2006. Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa. Journal of Agricultural Water Management 80: 57-73.
22. Parsa, M., and Bagheri, A. 2008. Beans. Publications University of Mashhad. (In Persian).
23. Patil, S.L., Mishra, P.K., Loganandhan, N., Ramesha, M.N., and Math, S.K.N. 2014. Energy, economics, and water use efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars in Vertisols of semi-arid tropics, India. Current Science 107(4): 656-664.
24. Pirzad, A., Jalilian, J., and Akbari Bavandi, V. 2014. Improving grain yield of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) using zeolite under water deficit condition. Research in Field Crops 3(1): 1-13. (In Persian with English Summary).
25. Rezaeyan Zadeh, E., Parsa, M., Ganjali, A., and Nezami, A. 2011. Responses of yield and yield components of chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) to supplemental irrigation in different phenology stages. Journal of Water and Soil 25(5): 1080-1095. (In Persian with English Summary).
26. Saharan, B.S., and Nehra, V. 2011. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: A critical review. Life Sciences and Medicine Research 21: 1-30.
27. Sajedi, N.A., and Rejali, F. 2011. Effects of water stress, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation on the absorption of micronutrients in corn. Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water) 25(2): 92-83. (In Persian with English Summary).
28. Sharma, A.K. 2002. Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture. Agrobios.
29. Smith, S., and Read, D. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press.
30. Tavakoli, A. 2003. The effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen on yield, components Sabalan cultivar wheat yield. Seed and Plant 19(3): 367-381. (In Persian with English Summary).
31. Thamrin, M., Susanto, S., Susila, A.D., and Sutandi, D.A. 2014. Correlation between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium leaf nutrient with fruit production of Pumello Citrus (Citrus maxima). Asian Journal of Applied Sciences 7(3): 129-139.
32. Wu, Q., and Xia, R. 2004. The relation between vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae and water metabolism in plants. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Sciences 20: 188-192.
33. Zaferanieh, M., Nezami, A., Parsa, M., Porsa, H., and Bagheri, A. 2009. Evaluation of fall sowing of cold tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasms under complementary irrigation in Mashhad condition: 2- Yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7(2): 473-481. (In Persian with English Summary).