عنوان مقاله [English]
Bean (Vicia faba L.) has the great old history of crop cultivation to date would be pushed back to a fairly long day plant, resistant to frost and cool season crop and up to 5 degrees Celsius tolerated. Bean prefers wet and cold conditions. Excessive heat may cause fetal growth problems, loss and reduce the number of seeds per pod bean flowers to the growth of plant and fruit set on low temperature and high humidity environments. Early planting allows more during plant growth and increased performance. Moreover, it is necessary to achieve maximum performance in the bean are balanced in the distribution of nutrients and the roots of the plant. Some studies have shown that many cereal plants can make use of phosphorus in the soil inaccessible. Phosphate makes the plant resistant to lodging, early maturity, higher quality, accelerating plant emergence to the initiation of flowering and pollination, and thus increases the yield.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of planting date and phosphorus nutrition on growth and performance of faba bean, a field experiment was done in Research Field of Agricultural University and Natural Resources of Ramin, Khuzestan, during 2013-2014. Experiment was done as split plots based on the completely randomized blocks design with four replications. Experimented factors were, five planting dates (2 October,17 October,1 November 16 November, and 1 December) as main plots and phosphorous oxide fertilizer (P2O5) with the amount of (zero, 50, 100,150 kilogram per hectare) from triple superphosphate resource as sub plot.
Results and Discussion
The Experiment results showed that planting date and phosphorus fertilizer and their interactions had a significant effect on morphological traits (include bush height, pod height from the ground, leaf area index, and number of sub branch). The comparison showed that the highest grain yield obtained in sowing date of 1 November (average production of 2752 kg per hectare) and the lowest yield obtained in planting Persian dates of 1 December (average production of 1903 kg per hectare) and 2 October (mean produced 1943 kg ha-1), respectively. The results of study of more than 100 kg P ha also had no significant effect on performance. The delay in planting bean reduces its performance. But through the power of P can be compensated to some extent the decline in performance so that delayed planting dates (10 December and 25 November) at the level of 100 kg per hectare yield than no fertilizer, respectively, about 55 and 60% increased.
Generally, in the process of growth, with a delay in sowing and increase the average temperature during the growing season and heat stress, all traits such as leaf area index, plant height, number of branches and the height of the first pod reduced. The cold start test at the beginning of the growing season, time to go green rose plant, but with the onset of heat at the end of the growing season and due to its effect on plant growth, all stages of growth were reduced. The results of study of more than 100 kg P ha also had no significant effect on performance. In total, the largest decline in the yield on the culture of 10 December occurred mainly due to reduced plant growth during the growing season as a result of dealing with the heat in the end of the growing season. The best results were obtained from the use of 100 kg per hectare phosphorus. The delay in planting bean reduces its performance. But through the power of P can be compensated to some extent the decline in performance so that delayed planting dates (10 December and 25 November) at the level of 100 kg per hectare yield than no fertilizer, respectively, about 55 and 60% increased.
Key words: Leaf, Plant height, Pod, Seed