اثر محلول‌پاشی اسید آسکوربیک و اسید سالیسیلیک بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی دو رقم نخود زراعی (Cicer arietinum L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

2 دانشگاه کردستان

3 دانشگاه آزاد واحد تبریز

4 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد سنندج

چکیده

در این پژوهش اثر تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی اسید آسکوربیک و اسید سالیسیلیک بر صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک دو رقم نخود به‌صورت اسپلیت‌پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در بهار و تابستان سال1390 در منطقه سنندج بررسی شد. تنش خشکی در چهار سطح شامل شاهد (آبیاری کامل)، تنش در مرحله رویشی (از ابتدای شاخه‌دهی تا گلدهی)، تنش در مرحله زایشی (از گلدهی تا رسیدگی) و تنش در هر دو مرحله رویشی و زایشی بود. ارقام نخود شامل ILC482 و محلی کردستان به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی اول و ترکیبات تنظیم‌کننده رشد شامل اسید آسکوربیک، اسید سالیسیلیک و آب معمولی (شاهد) به‌صورت محلول‌پاشی به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی دوم درنظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک بوته، وزن100دانه، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، پروتئین محلول برگ، کلروفیل a و b، کاروتنوئیدها وکلروفیل کل گردید. رقم ILC482 از محتوای نسبی آب برگ بیشتر و رقم کردستان از وزن100دانه بالاتری برخوردار بود. اسید آسکوربیک سبب افزایش وزن خشک بوته، کلروفیل a، کارتنوئیدها و کلروفیل کل گردید. کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک سبب افزایش کلروفیل b و پروتئین محلول برگ در شرایط تنش کامل گردید. وزن خشک بوته و محتوی نسبی آب برگ تحت تأثیر مواد تنظیم‌کننده رشد قرار نگرفتند. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق رقم ILC482 از لحاظ عملکرد دانه نسبت به رقم کردستان برتری داشت و تحمل بیشتری به تنش خشکی نشان داد. اسید آسکوربیک در افزایش عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک بوته، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی وحفظ محتوای آب برگ، نقش بیشتری را در آزمایش داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of ascorbic and salicylic acid foliar application on physiological traits of two chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Siamak farjam 1
  • Adel Siosemardeh 2
  • Hamdollah Kazemi-Arbat 1
  • Mehrdad Yarnia 3
  • Asad Rokhzadi 4
1 1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
4 Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important food legume. Drought is one of the main constraints restricting the growth and yield of crop plants. Most chickpea producing areas are in the arid and semi-arid zones, and approximately 90% of world’s chickpea is grown under rainfed conditions. The water deficit stress condition decrease chickpea yield and produced biomass. If the drought stress lasts long, the plant will face the oxidative damage inevitably, and can be resulted in producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are the result of incomplete reduction of oxygen. It is suggested that antioxidants, like salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (AA), may enhance drought tolerance in plants. Salicylic acid is one of the antioxidants which prevent the high activity of ROS and is introduced as an important messenger molecule in plant responses to different biotic and abiotic stresses. It is reported that ascorbic acid increases the cell division and causes increasing dry and fresh weight of leaf on plants and also antioxidant decreases the damage from oxygen radicals produced due to drought stress. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of SA and AA foliar application on physiological traits of two chickpea genotypes under different drought stress conditions.
 
Materials & Methods
In this study the effects of drought stress and foliar application of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid on different characteristics of chickpea including seed yield, seed protein content, leaf relative water content and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Sanandaj. The experimental layout was a split plot factorial as RCBD with four replications. Four levels of water stress were considered arrangement in main plots including: Complete irrigation as control, Drought stress at vegetative stage, Drought stress at reproductive stage, and Drought stress at vegetative and reproductive stages. Combination of chickpea cultivars (ILC482 and local landrace) and ascorbic acid (100 mg/l) and salicylic acid (200 mg/l) were allocated to subplot. All the experimental plots from sowing to branching were fully watered to achieve a proper stand establishment. Foliar spraying of the plants was performed when the fifth lateral branch emerged. Plots were irrigated by a drip irrigation system. Soil moisture content was measured by gravimetric method and thus the volume of water applied to each plot was determined. Transparent plastic covers over the plots were used to avoid the effects of periodic rains and then removed when the rain stopped. Accumulated rainfall and irrigation were determined in four levels of irrigation. The measured data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance operations using the SAS computer package version 9.1. Means of treatments were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at the 0.05 level of significance.
 
Results & Discussion
 Results showed that drought stress reduced seed yield, biomass, hundred-seed weight, relative water content, leaf protein content, concentration of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll. The mean seed yield of chickpea under the stress treatments of vegetative, reproductive and continues stress was decreased at the ratios of 53, 63 and 68% respectively as compared with control. In well watered conditions, photosynthesis rate and assimilates production are increased which consequently results in the elevation of seed yield through increasing in seed filling rate and seed weight. Moreover comparison between the recorded yields in vegetative and reproductive stress treatments revealed that the yield reduction in reproductive stress treatment was more pronounced compared to vegetative stress, indicating the vulnerability of chickpea yield to terminal drought stress prevailing and occurring at reproductive stage of chickpea development. Terminal drought stress is considered as a primary constraint to chickpea productivity in countries such as Iran, where the crop is generally sown after the main rainy season and grown on stored soil moisture. The results indicated that ascorbic acid application resulted in the increase of seed yield, chlorophyll a, carotenoids and total chlorophyll. Results also indicated that application of salicylic acid increased the amount of chlorophyll a content. Whereas hundred-seed weight and leaf relative water content were not affected by growth regulator substances.
 
Conclusions
Results showed that drought stress decreased agronomic and physiological characteristics in this study. Generally it was concluded that SA and AA have the potential of diminishing injury effects of drought stress and promoting crop productivity. Results also indicated that application of ascorbic acid and ILC482 cultivar are suitable in climatic conditions of Sanandaj.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth regulator substances
  • Seed yield
  • Chlorophyll
  • Carotenoid
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