عنوان مقاله [English]
Excessive application of chemical fertilizers for increasing agricultural production, particularly in the agricultural sector, causing environmental damage and disturbance in soil fertility. Lentil is one of the most important pulse crop in rainfed area which is grown on 132,000 hectares in 2014-15 cropping season in Iran. Major lentil areas (95%) are planted in rain fed condition and are grown in rotation with cereals mainly wheat and barley. Mean productivity of lentil 558 kg ha-1 in 2014-15 cropping season in Iran. One of the reason for low lentil productivity in Iran, is unfavorable fertilization in lentil farms. Currently biologic fertilizers as an alternative option for chemical fertilizer to enhance to soil fertility in the stable agricultural production are considered. Rhizosphere beneficial bacteria are commonly called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and have been under researchers focus for many years. PGPRs can stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate is a characteristic has been frequently used for screening these bacteria. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) cultivars.
Material & Methods
An experiment was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications and five levels of fertilizer treatments (without consumption the fertilizer, Super Nitro Plus, Nitroxin, Rhizocheck and 20 kg nutrition fertilizer per hectare) and three lentil varieties (Kimia, Bilesevar and local check) in Ekbatan Research Station of Hamedan during 2014-2015. During vegetative and reproductive phases, weeds were controlled and data were recorded on days to flowering, days to podding days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, biomass, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and seed yield. Data were analyzed using the SAS. Ver. 9.1 and figures drew were prepared by EXCEL and means compared by using DMRT at the 5% and 1% level.
Results & Discussion
The results of present research showed that fertilizer treatment was significant effects on days to flowering, days to poding, plant height, pod number per plant, biomass and seed yield. But fertilizer treatment had not significant effects days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod. Also the results showed that the cultivars had significant difference on days to flowering, days to poding, plant height, biomass, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, and seed yield. Varieties had not significance different on days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant. Interaction of fertilizer × variety on all characters was not significant. Mean comparison showed that the highest and lowest yield belong to Rhizocheck and check respectively. The utilization of Rhizocheck had been in caused 29, 16, 28 and 49 percent higher biomass, plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield than check respectively. Also the results indicated that Bilesevar variety produced the significant and higher grain yield (832 kg/ha) than check. Bilesevar variety had the highest biomass, plant height, number of seeds per pod, and grain yield. Most of studies have reported that using biological fertilizers have been affected grain yield of chickpea, wheat, seasame and bean. According to this study results, it is recommended to inoculate Rhizocheck on Bilesevar variety for planting under rainfed condition of Hamedan region.
One of the most important factor for soil fertility is microorganism ability for production. The result of present study showed the highest productivity obtained from Rhizochick application and Bilesevar improved lentil variety produced the highest grain yield. Rhizochick may enhance photosynthesis and enhancing availability of nutritional elements. Therefore grain yield have been increased. Generally, PGPR promote plant growth directly by either facilitating resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus, essential element) or modulating plant hormone level. The reduction chemical application will affect decreasing environment contamination which is one of the important factor for stability. Therefore it is recommended to plant Bilesevar improved lentil variety with Rhizochick inoculation in Hamedan region.