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محسن جهان محمد بهزاد امیری فرانک نوربخش

چکیده

در سال‎های اخیر استفاده از نهاده‎های بوم‎سازگار و بهینه‌سازی این منابع، به‌عنوان راهکاری اکولوژیک مدنظر قرار گرفته و افزایش تولید و بهبود سلامت محصولات مختلف را در پی داشته است. به‌منظور تعیین مقادیر بهینة سوپرجاذب رطوبت، اسید هیومیک و کود دامی در زراعت لوبیا (Phoseolus vulgaris L.) آزمایشی با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ، در قالب باکس‌بنکن طراحی و در سال زراعی 93-1392 در مزرعة تحقیقاتی دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ترکیبی از سوپرجاذب رطوبت (در دو سطح 80 و 160‌کیلوگرم در هکتار)، اسید هیومیک (در دو سطح 4 و 8‌کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کود گاوی (در دو سطح صفر و 30‌تن در هکتار) بود که با در‌نظرگرفتن سه تکرار برای نقطة مرکزی، در مجموع 15‌ترکیب تیماری برای مطالعه لحاظ گردید. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه در سطوح میانی اسید هیومیک (6‌کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌دست آمد، به‌طوری‌که مصرف این مقدار اسید هیومیک عملکرد دانه را به‌ترتیب 15 و 11‌درصد نسبت به سطوح 4 و 8‌کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش داد. افزایش متعادل مقادیر مصرفی کود دامی منجر به افزایش عملکرد مادة خشک شد، به‎این‎ترتیب که با افزایش مقدار کود دامی از صفر به 15‌تن در هکتار عملکرد مادة خشک 36‌درصد افزایش یافت، ولی افزایش بیشتر کود دامی (از 15 به 30‌تن در هکتار) کاهش چهار درصدی عملکرد مادة خشک را سبب شد. با افزایش مقادیر مصرفی سوپرجاذب، میزان تلفات نیتروژن کاهش یافت، به‌طوری‌که کاربرد 120‌کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب به جای 80‌کیلوگرم در هکتار از این کود منجر به کاهش 17‌درصدی میزان تلفات نیتروژن شد. کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن در سطح 6‌کیلوگرم در هکتار اسید هیومیک به‌ترتیب 16 و 13‌درصد نسبت به سطوح چهار و هشت کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشتر بود. در سناریوی اقتصادی به‌ترتیب با مصرف 83/143 و 14/6‌کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و اسید هیومیک و 12/22‌تن در هکتار کود دامی، عملکرد دانه‎ای معادل 1613‌کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌دست آمد. در سناریوی زیست‎محیطی میزان تلفات نیتروژن نسبت به سناریوی اقتصادی به‌شدت (95‌درصد) کاهش یافت. از آنجایی‎که در سناریوی اقتصادی-زیست‎محیطی از ابعاد مختلف به بهینه‌سازی منابع توجه می‌شود، به‎نظر می‌رسد استفاده از مقادیر بهینة منابع در این سناریو (به‌ترتیب 71/131 و 02/6‌‌کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و اسید هیومیک و 300‌کیلوگرم در هکتار کود دامی) مناسب‎ترین سطوح نهاده‎های مصرفی در این پژوهش باشد.

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ارجاع به مقاله
جهان م., امیری م. ب., & نوربخش ف. (2017). بررسی و مقایسة سناریوهای مختلف اقتصادی و زیست‌محیطی از طریق بهینه‌سازی مصرف سوپرجاذب رطوبت، اسید هیومیک و کود دامی در زراعت لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). پژوهش‌های حبوبات ایران, 8(2), 10-30. https://doi.org/10.22067/ijpr.v8i2.48451
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